Tyrnavos Phallophoria: “Bourani” March 2016

The Satyr at Tyrnavos 2016

The Satyr at Tyrnavos 2016

I arrive at just before 10am and the town square is still quiet – a few traders setting up for the day. But activity gathers very quickly. Beside the main marquee, on a truck, is what will become one of the main attractions – everyone wants to climb up onto it and have their photo taken. It is not Dionysus, but not merely a satyr. The bunches of grapes draped over the sides of the cart certainly point to Dionysus, but the floppy ears suggest something far more satyrnine – and the hooves are cloven! In this respect he is perhaps closer to Pan! The phalloi on offer at the stalls have a local, home-made quality, mostly made of clay, (though there are also some (Chinese?) plastic/rubber dildoes,) and there are plenty of phallic lollies and chocolate willies – things made easily in a mould.

 

Phalloi for sale

Phalloi for sale

The Bourani Cauldron

The Bourani Cauldron

The centrepiece of the event, at the middle of the main marquee, is the real fire under a great old iron cauldron full of green Bourani soup. Bourani is a thick, oil-less, spinach-based soup served on Clean Monday in Tyrnavos, and has given its name to the Festival, too.

Clean Monday (Greek: Καθαρά Δευτέρα), also known as Pure Monday, Ash Monday, Monday of Lent or Green Monday, is the first day of Great Lent in the Eastern Orthodox Christian, Saint Thomas Christians of India and Eastern Catholic churches.

A poster on a noticeboard outside a shop selling Phalloi

A poster on a noticeboard outside a shop selling Phalloi

It is usually in late February or early March, 7 weeks before (Orthodox) Easter.  Any relationship with Ancient Greek Phallophoria, in honour of Dionysus, in early or late Spring, is as conjectural as a relationship between Guy Fawkes night and the Celtic Samhain.  Syncretic religious festivals are by nature moveable feasts.  The first written records about Tyrnavos’ Bourani festival date from 1898 – seventeen years after the creation of the modern Greek state after its mountain rebels liberated the country from the Ottoman Empire, of which it had been a province since the mid-15th century BCE.  [After the sacking of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Roman Empire in the first years of the 13th century, the whole region fell to the Ottomans over the following two hundred years or so.]

The cauldron is stirred constantly with a big old ladle, and around it people began dancing from shortly after 10am as the PA system cranked up and began blasting out traditional Greek choral dance music. The ottoman edges to the sounds are hypnotic, the gradually increasing rhythms mesmerising. After initial excitement walking round and round the square, I settled down in a seat outside one of the cafes for an espresso fredo, and to drink in the atmosphere as the square filled up with people. Soon the square was heaving!

 

Photos with the Satyr

Photos with the Satyr

Stirring the Cauldron

Stirring the Cauldron

Everyone wants their photo taken with Satyr – the old men, the kids, and the women. People take it in turns to stir the Bourani cauldron too. When the women stir the cauldron, the old men gather round, waving Phalloi in their faces, and lift the women up – often with an arm between their legs – so that they can stir the cauldron from above. The crowd roars approval every time.

Untitled

Dancing with the Phalloi round the Bourani

Yum yum!

Yum yum!

A Greek brass band finally strikes up, and the live music really gets the dancers going. Its quite a spectacle! At last the Bourani is served in little plastic bowls – to anyone who wants some. With all that fun, laughter, and history stirred into the pot, I couldn’t resist: it’s salty, wholesome, and delicious!

 

A rocking Phallus

A rocking Phallus

The Bakery joins in the fun

The Bakery joins in the fun

Lots more pictures on Flickr:
Tyrnavos Phallophoria March 2016

Vergina and Dion

The Prince's tomb at Aigai

The Prince’s tomb at Aigai

After yesterday’s post it seemed appropriate to make the trip north to Vergina. Here the great mound of the Royal Tombs of the Kingdom of Macedon has been dug out and turned into a marvellous museum. One literally walks into the mound, to find a concrete domed roof over a range of cases and cabinets where the gold, bronze and other exquisite grave goods are laid out.

A gold wreath of oak leaves on a silver funerary urn

A gold wreath of oak leaves on a silver funerary urn

The gold oak-leaf and acorn crowns are particularly beautiful and impressive. I took my hat off as I walked down the concrete ramp into the tomb. It seemed the right thing to do. Past many of the various cabinets, one suddenly comes to an opening at the top of a ramp and flight of stairs down deep into the ground, at the foot of which stands the Tomb gates of King Phillip II. It is awe inspiring. I’ve not experienced anything like it outside the Valley of the Kings.  Even Sipan, in Peru, where the museum was similarly built over the excavated tomb of a Moche king, and the gold and treasures, in truth, far more sumptious even than Phillip’s, did not have the sheer atmosphere and ‘wow’ factor of this Royal Tomb – at least for me.  After catching my breath, stepping slowly down the steps – they keep the place quite dark, no doubt for the sake of the fading paintwork as much as for atmosphere – I stood at last at the foot of the stairs and paid my respects to the Great King.  It was quite humbling.  Turning, at last, to retreat back into the 21st century, the museum, and the bustling of other tourists, I felt quite blessed to have visited this amazing place.  Next to his grandfather’s tomb is that of (probably) Alexander IV, the son born to Roxanne, Alexander the Great’s Bactrian wife, a few months following the death of the great Conqueror.

The inside of the tomb

The inside of the tomb

Having read the novels of Mary Renault – praised for their historical accuracy as much as for the richness of their evocation of the era – on a number of occasions, I felt the power of this place quite keenly, and, following yesterday’s post, and prior to tomorrow’s Phallophoria in Tyrnavos, I was reminded that Phillip II, the King who united all Greece under the Macedonian throne, as well as several wives, enjoyed a string of lovers both female and male. His assassin was, in Mary Renault’s story at least, a former male lover.  Alexander, also married and a father, (albeit posthumously), was renowned for his love of Hephaistion. They met as boys and remained lovers until Hephaistion’s death shortly before Alexander’s own. Also for his taking of Bagoas, the male concubine of the Persian Emperor, to his own court, and his fondness for him.

The Royal Tombs from outside

The Royal Tombs from outside

An aerial view of Dion archaeological park

An aerial view of Dion archaeological park

From Aigai I returned southward, once more, but only half-way back to Larissa, to stop and take in the sights of the Archaeological Museum and Archaeological Park of Dion.  Having been to Athens on a number of occasions, it must be said that Dion is not spectacularly impressive: little exists above waist height, and the statuary is pretty battered, as a whole.  Nonetheless it was well worth the visit, to discover the Villa of Dionysus, within the city, and the Sanctuary of Isis, on its outskirts.  Dion was the location of the first ever Olympic Games (according to the Museum guide who welcomed me fulsomely – me being from Manchester!), and the gathering of athletes from across Greece required a number of different sanctuaries, outside the walls of the city, where encampments of visitors could make their observances.  The Sanctuaries of Demeter and Zeus, therefore, were accompanied by a Sanctuary of Isis, too.  But the city itself – beyond the clear precedent given to Zeus – was devoted to Dionysus, and this is clear from the mosaics and the statuary.

Dionysus

Dionysus

The full set of photos from Dion are on Flickr – click on the photo below to go there.

The Phallus in Ancient Greece – A Long Read

Introduction

Phallic Hermes

Phallic Hermes

Todger. Willy. Knob. Yep – this is a blogpost about the penis. Not my penis. Not yours or anyone else’s – not any particular penis, in fact, but The Penis. Not even just The Penis, either, but The Erect Penis: aka The Phallus.

Let me put this into some context.   What follows is a fairly lengthy introductory ‘context’ preamble, and then a discussion about the Phallus. But before we start I need just to say that this is NOT, of course, a post about femininity, albeit written by a feminist. But I want to mention right away how pleased I am that, at last, there has been, over the past hundred years or so, some movement on gender equality, although there is still a long way to go.  Women are at last retaking the power that (perhaps) they once had, before patriarchal times – and although such times persist, change does seem to be underway. So, that said, back to The Phallus.

1 – What do I mean by ‘Ancient’

‘Ancient’ – when we’re talking about Classical Times, this means Ancient Greece and Rome.  ‘Ancient’ also, however, also often means pre-Historic. History – literally ‘his story’ – is by definition written, and therefore since the advent of writing, and by definition patriarchal, i.e. stories about men running things and ‘his’ being in charge.

This post about the Phallus in Ancient Greece needs to start with an acknowledgement that there remains much debate about how old patriarchy is, when and how it arose, whether it was preceded (in Europe, or anywhere else) by matriarchy or matri- or gynocentric cultures that have not been recorded as a part of our ‘history’.  Marija Gimbutas is perhaps most responsible for some of these ideas, and despite some academic misgivings concerning her methods, there seems also to be widespread acceptance that there is truth in what she asserted. It must also be recognised that ‘History’ arrived in various parts of the world at different times.  In some Amazonian corners it is still making its first appearances, thousands of years since developed writing first arose in the Middle East in the 4th millennium BCE. (Such developed writing systems grew slowly from a wide range of different Neolithic symbol and number systems, evident as early as the 7th millennium BCE both in China, and, according to Gimbutas, in Serbia, in the mysterious and untranslated Vinca symbols.)

So ‘Ancient Greece’ is something that could be understood to be both pre-historic, and historic, under conditions both of gynocentric and patriarchal social structures.

2 – Is this just a ‘gay’ thing?

An ithyphallic man fondles a boy's genitals

An ithyphallic man fondles a boy’s genitals

Sexuality, per se, inevitably, figures hugely in any discussion of The Phallus.  As a gay man myself there will inevitably be a lot about same-sex activity in this post. But The Phallus is obviously a Male thing, and it goes beyond sexuality, into spirituality. I need to say a thing or two about the roots of our modern notions of sexuality.

Anyone who has even heard of Foucault’s three volume History of Sexuality will know where I’m going with this.  For the last two thousand years we have – as a species – been subject to, at first the Christian, and then the Islamic, suppression of non-procreative sex.  Whether this is an innate part of how patriarchy works, or a later addition for the purposes of greater control of the self, there remains much debate.  Without doubt, however, since the early 4th century CE edicts at the Byzantine Council of Nicaea against male same-sex activity, (perhaps simply aimed at arresting some Greek Philosophers who dissented from the new Church doctrine), Christianity has sought to repress our sexual natures, and confine our activities to strictly procreative acts. It was Peter Damian, in the 11th century, striving to stamp out the male same-sex activity that was rife amongst the clergy and in the monasteries, who first limited the notion of ‘sodomy’ to acts undertaken with a penis. Until then the story of Sodom, where Lot offered his daughters to be ravished by a mob, seemed focused less on male same-sex activity than on anything that was not strictly procreative.

Islam, from the 7th-8th centuries onwards, followed suit, in much the same vein.  Despite edicts from the pulpit and minaret, however, there remained much ‘leeway’ and tolerance for centuries, and it was only in relatively recent times that attitudes really hardened. With the industrial and scientific revolutions in full swing, the British Empire, in Victorian times, helped to spread European ideas that medicalised sexual activity and ‘invented’ whole categories of ‘sexuality’ – ascribing a name to a series of specific sexual acts and ascribing that set of acts to particular types of personality: The term ‘homosexual’ was first coined by Hungarian sexologist Kertbeny (1869).  This notion was taken up by Westphal in a famous article in 1870 as, “contrary sexual sensations” – regarded by Foucault as the “date of birth” of the categorisation, ‘homosexual’ (Foucault 1990).  An 1895 translation of Richard von Kraft-Ebing’s sexologists’ bible Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) saw the word’s first appearance in English (Halperin 1990).  Such Victorian values of prudery gradually changed the British Christian laws against sodomy (first introduced by Henry VIII in 1533, and a capital offence until 1861) into laws against a type of person – the homosexual. As early as 1860 in India, laws against sodomy were simultaneously exported to the colonies.  
So in the 21st century we see “sodomy laws throughout Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have consistently been colonial impositions,” (Gupta 2008:10) and do not reflect pre-colonial cultural mores.  Such laws are, as Gupta titles his treatise, an ‘Alien Legacy’.  “No ‘native’ ever participated in their making. Colonizers saw indigenous cultures as sexually corrupt. A bent toward homosexuality supposedly formed part of their corruption. Where pre-colonial peoples had been permissive, sodomy laws would cure them—and defend their new, white masters against moral contagion.” (Gupta 2008:10).

In ‘ancient’ times, then, the notion of ‘sexuality’, as we understand it today, simply did not pertain. People had sexual relations with each other, plain and simple, and such relations did not define who one was, in any sense. It is therefore likely that many, if not most people, were what we might today consider ‘bisexual’. Indeed, Ryan and Jetha assert in their book, Sex at Dawn, that their interpretation of the anthropological data suggests that even monogamy is a latter-day social creation.

So no, it is not a ‘gay’ thing, because ‘gay’ (a 1950s redefinition of an older word) and ‘homosexual’ (a late 19th century Victorian invention) simply did not exist in ancient times: the Phallus was a part of all male sexual activity.

3 – OK so what about today?

Pan

Pan

Modern attitudes to sexuality have – as we all know – very swiftly changed, in the last decade or two, and this is greatly to be welcomed.  Legalisation of homosexuality in the West, during the 1960s and 1970s, has been followed by equality in age of consent, legal protections, employment laws, and most recently marriage law. Young people today are increasingly ‘heteroflexible’ in their attitudes: essentially straight but would go with the right person for a same-sex experience, and not consider it a problem. Perhaps this is closer to what Ryan and Jetha were on about, or a transition towards it at any rate. Sad to say, there has been a great polarisation, however, and whilst attitudes in the ‘West’ and ‘North’ have changed such that things have never been so good, in the ‘East’ and  ‘South’ things have got much worse.  At the United Nations, in March 2011, 85 of the United Nations’ 192 member countries sponsored a new version of the declaration first proposed in 2008, recognizing LGBTQI rights (Jordans 2011), and followed it up with a report published in December 2011 documenting violations of the rights of LGBTQI people around the world, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination.  With the notable exceptions of Israel, Turkey, Jordan, Iraq and the West Bank (in the Palestinian Occupied Territories,) same-sex activity is illegal throughout the Middle East and North Africa.  In most countries in this region there is no recognition of same-sex relationships or same-sex marriage; there is no legal route to same-sex adoption; gays are not allowed to serve openly in military; there are no anti-discrimination laws covering sexual orientation, or laws concerning gender identity/expression.  In the Sudan, Somalia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, homosexuality is punishable by the death penalty (Bruce-Jones & Itaborahy 2011).  LGBTQI people are to all intents and purposes invisible in public spaces in these countries.
 It can only be hoped that this turn for the worse is soon reversed, and that attitudes soften once more.

In the West, though, now, we are welcoming in the extraordinarily liberating times of gender flexibility: transgender rights are in the newspapers, being championed (with varying success) by celebrities – think Eddie Izzard, Eddie Redmayne – the list is long…. More profound, still, in the spaces where gays and lesbians carved out their rights in the late 1990s and early 2000s, that have, in recent years, become somewhat colonised by Hen nights, a new thrust of drag and transgenderism is retaking the ‘scene’ with a spirited gusto that can only be praised and supported.

The Phallus

SO, as the (very lengthy) preamble finally moves towards its conclusion, my question is: is it time to recall, also, the sacred phallus of ancient times – the erection that represents virility, life-force, spirit : not in a patriarchal way – nor in a ‘gay’ way – but unashamedly ‘cocky’ nonetheless. It would, I believe, be in keeping with the new flexibility in sexuality and gender, to begin again to be more open about The Phallus.

The Warren Cup

The Warren Cup

Collections of material related to this topic – often known, in 19th century terms, as ‘erotica’ – used to be private, the whole thing frowned upon; now in more enlightened times this study is coming to light, less the focus of reproach or giggles, more of serious anthropological interest. Let us – for example – recall the story of The Warren Cup (see the excellent British Museum booklet on it).  In solid silver, it has exquisite depictions of man-on-man anal sex on it.  It was refused when first offered to, but later expressly bought by the British Museum, in (these) more enlightened times.  The Museum have since also celebrated Hadrian and Antinous – the gay Roman Emperor famous for his northern British wall, and his younger male lover. More importantly, those sculptures with Phalloi which survived the destruction wrought by Victorian explorers who broke them off statues as a matter of public decency, are now being brought out of private collections and displayed in our museums.

I think the time is indeed ripe for people to consider and appreciate the beauty, spiritual history, cultural significance, and potency of The Phallus, and to understand it anew – and in a modern context.

Background

satyrs

Satyrs, Greece

Having ‘contextualised’ the broader debate, we need also to spell out a bit of the ‘background’ of discussion around The Phallus.  It must be recalled – though it is perhaps impossible for any modern eye to see through the eyes of the pre-moderns, that, as far as we can understand it, pre-modern sexuality – the ancient form of gender flexibility – had none of the Victorian embarrassment or prudery around sex, sexuality and nudity of modern times. Sex was much more openly a part of our lives, much more vibrant and present, absent the shame and discounting that is habitual in this day and age: it was front and centre: I would say, as it should be. This was true not just for family life, but for those engaging in same-sex relations too.

Although in Europe the purging of the ‘pagan’ religions by the Inquisition was so complete that there remain scant – if any – remnants of how things were before the imposition of the notion of ‘Sin’, elsewhere in the world it is clear that such prudery is far from typical of the human condition.

As Murray asserts, Islam replaced pagan religions across the Middle Eastern region that included “sacred sexually receptive – often gender-variant – functionaries” (Murray & Roscoe 1997:24) – and Roscoe argues that the ‘eunuchs’ who ran the vast bureaucracies and harems of the Empires of the ancient Middle East may not even have been castrated: the translation of their title as ‘eunuch’ is laden with the historical overlay of 19th century English commentary.  It is closer to the truth that these functionaries were simply not a dynastic threat to their rulers – uninterested in procreation – and in any case where castration was in evidence it is clear that it was also reserved in many cases only for the very highest ranks of such functionaries.  Societies in the Middle East, then, included families and single men and women. The latter were more normally gathered in segregated groupings, either in temples or colleges. But not always. Nor were the male heads of the families always exclusive to their wives, or to what we would today call ‘heterosexual’ behavior outside of their marriages. According to Herodotus, even wives would spend time in the Temple of Aphrodite at least once in their lives, to be visited by a Temple devotee, to whom they would grant their favours.

Pan and Daphnis, Roman reproduction of Greek original

Pan and Daphnis, Roman reproduction of Greek original

Roscoe tells us more, too, about same-sex behavior in ancient times. “The category of status-differentiated homosexuality, includes not only paederastia, relations between adult men and youths such as flourished at Athens, but all relations between individuals socially defined as male in which one partner is of higher status than the other.”  Status-differentiated homosexuality, then – familiar in English public schools like Eton between sixth formers and their younger ‘fags’ (Bullough and Bullough 1979) – is universally based on “a distinction between the inserting (high status) role and the penetrated (low status) role in sexual intercourse.”   The more institutionalised, status-differentiated homosexualities appear “to have been more limited to the Mediterranean basin and areas of southwest Asia influenced by Greek and Roman culture” (Murray & Roscoe 1997:56).  Third-gender roles, meanwhile, it seems, were common throughout the region, including, “state third-gender roles, in which gender difference was linked to specific positions in state and civic institutions, and folk third-gender roles, exemplified by the devotees of popular goddess cults,” such as Cybele, common to all the ancient cultures in all the regions that Muslims eventually contacted (Murray & Roscoe 1997:56).   That these third-gender roles so prevalent in the pre-Islamic Middle East and North Africa, and absorbed into pre-Modern Islamic culture, continued not only into the 19th century but – in some places – to the present day, is evidenced by the discovery, during the war in Afghanistan, by American troops, of institutionalised pederasty in the Pashtun areas of the Af-Pak border region (Wijngaarden & Rani 2011).

Sexuality and gender, then, as we have understood it in the West, in recent decades, is in fact far more complex, contextual, and dependent on local/regional mores than we are often led to believe.  Historically it has had many and various setups, according to time, place, and context.  Until very recently – with the medicalisation of sex in the 19th century – it has always been subject to spiritual understanding, but only very recently subject to both medical and spiritual censure.

The spirituality of sex, then, with ‘hierodules’ – religious functionaries (and devotees performing once-in-a-lifetime service) whose function was to have sexual relations with temple visitors – both male and female, and for both male and female, according to mood, the deity, or need, is something quite widespread, and ancient.  So, we can move (at last!) to direct consideration of the pillar at the centre of this post.

The Sacred Phallus

Ithyphallic Shiva

Ithyphallic Shiva

First-off, it is a global phenomenon.  By this I mean that it is likely something as old as humanity itself, to see in the image of the erect penis a symbol of much that is important to us. Until the advent of modern science – spermatozoa were not discovered until the late 17th century – it is likely, even, that little was understood concerning ovulation, and indeed Greek writers such as Aeschylus and Galen suggested that human beings emerged from the ‘seed’ within semen, and that the womb was merely the place where it grew before emerging as a baby. That such anatomical ignorance helped to impart some of the significance that semen, and the Phallus, had for people, should not, now, in more enlightened times, lead us to dismiss that significance altogether. The seed remains the bearer of half the genetic material, and the spark that sets things going in the egg that it finds.   There is some evidence that the drinking of semen in religious rites is very ancient, and was even still being practiced in early Christian mystery sects. The importance of the Phallus, therefore, for ancient peoples – even during gynocentric times – cannot be overstated.

Triple Phallus, Tarxien, Malta c3000BCE

Triple Phallus, Tarxien, Malta c3000BCE

Neolithic peoples, aside from the many goddess figurines many of us will be more familiar with, also left behind many phalli in the archaeological record – the world over.

Minoan Master of the Animals

Minoan Master of the Animals

As the books of Alain Danielou assert, the ancient Indian deity Shiva, whose story Danielou traces back to the Indus Valley civilisation (3300BCE) – whose Phallus forms the central pillar of the world and whose semen spawned the universe – can be considered the cultural ‘original’ for a host of later, regional variations, gradually moving westward through the Middle East, as the Lord of the Animals, into Europe, where his story and role in local pantheons is found under the name of Dionysus (and of course his son, Priapus), Bacchus, and Cernunnos.

Priapus

Priapus

These ‘horned’ or ‘horny’ deities, whose Phalli represent Creativity, Life, Power and Inspiration, have so much in common, according to Danielou, that their local and regional variations are almost merely accents, rather than dialects, of an original Shivaic tongue. Certainly the main image we know of Cernunnos – from the Gundestrup cauldron – set beside the Indus Valley civilization depiction of (proto-) Shiva, seem to suggest that they contain many identifiably common themes.

IMG_1262

Cernunnos, on the Gundestrup Cauldron, Copenhagen

Shiva_Pashupati

(Proto)Shiva, from the Indus Valley Civilisation

Min

Egyptian God Min, at Luxor

Danielou asserts that (Greek) Dionysus and (Roman) Bacchus are closely linked to the (Indian) Shiva story. Such linkages are a common theme going back many centuries. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus both believed the Greek Gods derived ultimately from the Egyptian pantheon. There are interesting arguments that it was in fact the phallic rituals that they all have in common that form the principal link.
Indeed the focus in this post is not to suggest such correlations, many of which may have simply been the result of syncretism in ancient times, but upon this common theme of the Sacred Phallus, and its prevalence across the ancient world. Beyond the more obvious Greek and Roman fascination with the Phallus, there is of course Egypt’s Pamyles, the Priapic God whose Spring Equinox festival, the Pamylia – the ancient Egyptian phallophoria – were a celebration of his fostering of the child Osiris, one of the five all-important intercalated days between each 360day year (see Plutarch’s account, and the mention in Theodor Kock’s Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta (vol2) p289). Small Horus child statuettes with hugely exaggerated phalluses are found in their thousands along the sacred waterways where this festival (among others) took place, deposited in the waters as votive offerings to the fertility of the Nile inundation. Better known still, perhaps, is Egypt’s God Min, whose ithyphallic likeness appears frequently on the walls and pillars of the temples at Luxor, and who presided over the coronation ceremonies of New Kingdom Pharoahs who may have been expected to ejaculate as part of the ceremony – thus ensuring the annual flooding of the Nile.
 

New Guinea Highland warriors in full gear.

New Guinea Highland warriors in full gear.

Aside, too, from the Gundestrup cauldron, there is also the assertions of J.G. Frazer concerning the use the Druids of Old Europe had for Mistletoe: for them the white berries represented the semen of the Gods – according to Frazer, anyway – suggesting a common thread with sacred phallic practice elsewhere. There is the extraordinary work in Papua New Guinea of Gilbert Herdt on the Sambia male initiations – where boys drink the semen of the older boys and men of the tribe as part of their education: the semen is what makes them into men. In North America, there were the Native American berdache or Two-Spirit people, and, according to James Neill, cave-paintings of palaeolithic shamans with erect penises, dancing among the game animals.  In South America, the Moche in particular represented the Phallus in their ceramics.

A Moche Ceramic at the Lorca Museum in Lima

A Moche Ceramic at the Lorca Museum in Lima

A Moche Ceramic at the Lorca Museum in Lima, Peru

A Moche Ceramic at the Lorca Museum in Lima, Peru

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

And at Chucuito in Peru there is this enigmatic Aymara/Inca temple:

Visit to an Aymara/Inca fertility temple

Visit to an Aymara/Inca fertility temple

So to find the Sacred Phallus in Ancient Greece is indeed not at all surprising. There are both antecedents that can be cited as origins for its presence, and plenty of evidence that the Sacred Phallus has been the focus of cultural and spiritual attention in all parts of the world.

The Phallus in Ancient Greece

A Neolithic Phallus at the Larissa Museum

A Neolithic Phallus at the Larissa Museum

The Phallus in Greece is evident from the 7th millennium BC at least. 

In the Classical period, once the Bronze Age was well under way, still the stone statuary honoured the Phallus – as testified by one of the most famous statues on Delos, for example:

 

 

 

One of many stone Phalloi on Delos

One of many stone Phalloi on Delos

Attic Bronze Age vase with ithyphallic satyrs

Attic Bronze Age vase with ithyphallic satyrs

The Satyrs of the period are renowned, of course, for their ithyphallic representation, along with the Silens and Priapus, and of course Pan:

 

 

 

 

 

Pan, Athens Museum

Pan, Athens Museum

A Herm, Athens

A Herm, Athens

Hermes was one of the Greek Pantheon – a son of Zeus – who was thought of as the one who leads souls to the other world and can restore them to Earth, feeding them with the power they need. He was the God of boundaries and their transgression, the protector of tombs, the “patron of magicians”.   At road junctions and at street corners one would often find a ‘Herm’ – an ithyphallic statue of the God, Phallus proudly erect – to mark the transition from place to place.

In Thessaly, his cult had particular importance, uniquely so in Greece: on grave markers a Herm is represented accompanied with an invocation to Hermes Chthonios. In this manner, the deceased is identified with the God and coexists with him in the actual monument. The grave marker was sometimes simply a large stone Phallus.

 

Two funerary Herms

Two funerary Herms in Larissa Museum

According to Danielou, it was in honor of Dionysus that Greek villages organized Phallophoria festivals in spring: phalloi were carried in ritual procession.  Kerenyi tells us that the revealing of a phallus in a basket figured as a central element of mystery cult initiation.

Today

Is it all gone? Suppressed by modern patriarchal religions? No. Here and there, there are strange relics, hangovers, echoes. The Sambia people are probably still around, though Herdt disguised their name and location, and there is debate around their practices, and whether they constitute abuse.

Less controversially, there’s a Penis Cafe in Sicily, a Phallus Museum in Iceland, and two annual Phallus Festivals in Japan. Also, though frowned upon by the Orthodox Church, even in Greece, there are echoes of this ancient past…    In Tyrnavos, a small village near the capital of Thessaly, Larissa, an echo of this ancient practice lives on. There is no evidence that the Tyrnavos festival is older than the late 19th century. But its heritage is clear, and the Phallophoria takes place on ‘Clean Monday’ every Spring.

In the next blog post, I will describe my experience, as I arrive and wander around the Phallophoria of Tyrnavos, 14th March 2016.

Bibliography

Bruce-Jones, E & Itaborahy, L (2011) State sponsored homophobia 2011 http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2011.pdf

Bullough, V. and Bullough, B. (1979) Homosexuality In Nineteenth Century English Public Schools International Review of Modern Sociology 9(2) pp. 261-269 http://www.jstor.org/stable/41420705

Conner, R. P., Sparks, H. D., and Sparks, M. (1997) Cassells Encyclopedia of Queer Myth, Symbol and Spirit. London: Cassell.

Danielou, Alain. (1995) The Phallus: Sacred Symbol of Male Creative Power. Trans. by Jon Graham. Inner Traditions International, Rochester, Vermont.

Danielou, A. (1992) Gods of Love and Ecstasy: The Traditions of Shiva and Dionysus Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.

Foucault, M. (1990a). History of Sexuality Vol 1: The Will To Knowledge, Penguin, London

Foucault, M. (1992). History of Sexuality Vol 2: The Use of Pleasure, Penguin, London

Foucault, M. (1990b). History of Sexuality Vol 3: The Care of the Self, Penguin, London

Frazer, J. G. (1996). The golden bough : a study in magic and religion. London, Penguin.

Gupta, A (2008) This Alien Legacy – The Origins of “Sodomy” Laws in British Colonialism, New York: Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/12/17/alien-legacy-0

Halperin, D (1990) One Hundred Years of Homosexuality London: Routledge.

Herdt, G. (1981) Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. McGraw-Hill.

Jordans, F (2011) ‘UN Gay Rights Protection’ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/06/17/un-gay-rights-protection-resolution-passes-_n_879032.html

Kerenyi, Carl. (1976) Dionysos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Kertbeny, Karl-Maria (1869) Paragraph 143 of the Prussian Penal Code and Its Maintenance as Paragraph 152 of the Draft of a Penal Code for the North German Confederation. Leipzig: Serbe’s Verlag http://www.boxturtlebulletin.com/2008/05/06/1942 (Viewed 9-2-2012)

Murray, S & Roscoe, W (1997) Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History and Literature New York: New York University Press

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Sergent, B (1984) Homosexuality in Greek Myth. Boston, MA: Beacon Books.

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WordPress – A Love/Hate Note

wordpress-logo-notext-rgbI have been using WordPress for quite a while now, both for my own websites, (whether personal or commercial) and in my teaching.

It is really useful, and really good.

But: since v3 when they started introducing AUTOUPDATE, WordPress has KILLED MY WEBSITE so many times, by updating itself when either a theme or plugin I was using wasn’t ready for such an update, or when the update caused mayhem on my server and half of it ended up ‘owned’ by Apache and unwritable except over Shell, logged in as root, etc etc., and simply a BLANK page to any visitor – with the backend broken, too, only fixable by uploading a complete replacement from external backup.

I have lost count of the HOURS of my time that have been wasted returning a website to what it was yesterday, after WordPress had destroyed it.

I have, henceforth, as a matter of course, ALWAYS added to wp-config.php, on all sites (covering all bases):

define( ‘WP_AUTO_UPDATE_CORE’, false );

define( ‘AUTOMATIC_UPDATER_DISABLED’, true );

Gramsci and Foucault: A Reassessment

On 3rd February 2015 Ashgate Publishing formally published my first book, a collection of essays entitled, “Gramsci and Foucault: A Reassessment.” The first conversation with the publisher was in January 2011, so this book has taken four years to complete. I first started reading Foucault and Gramsci myself, however, in 1995, so you could say it has been twenty years in the making. I wrote a call for chapters, distributed it widely, and chose a selection of the abstracts that were submitted to me to make a collection. Then they wrote their chapters and I organised each to be . . . → Read More: Gramsci and Foucault: A Reassessment

Marriage and Honeymoon

Colin Kreps threw his lot in with me – and took my surname – on 27th August 2014 – and we went back to Skye, and then for a week on the Isle of Arran, for our honeymoon. There is a full website detailing the ceremony and the honeymoon at http://www.davidandcolin.co.uk/

Northumbrian Megalithic adventures

In May 2014 Colin and I spent a week in Northumbria, discovering stones, and especially rock art.

Aberdeenshire 3

Today, after a lie in, we went for a walk at Burn o’Vat – a huge meltwater kettle hole left over from the glacial times that shaped most of the landscape in Scotland. Here we found that it wasn’t just a hole you could look into, but one you could walk into and examine from its bottom – very impressive!

From there we took a walk around Lock Kinold – 4.25miles in total – past delightful little coves of water lillies and bullrushes, overlooking ancient lake villages, in the shadow of more recent Celtic Cross stones. A really . . . → Read More: Aberdeenshire 3

Aberdeenshire 2

Today’s excursion was simpler and more scenic. We headed first due east to Crathes Castle. This was the seat of the Burnett family from 1323, when Robert the Bruce gave them lands. According to one information sheet at the Castle, (though reported as ‘disputed’ on the web, e.g. Scotweb, who suggest they may have been French) the Burnetts were originally Anglo-Saxon nobles from Bedfordshire, displaced by William the Conqueror, and two branches of the family exiled themselves to Scotland, one branch ending up in Aberdeenshire. The Castle here now was built by Alexander Burnett in 1596, and its contents largely . . . → Read More: Aberdeenshire 2

Megalithic Megamix in Aberdeenshire

So here we are – my partner Colin and I – staying in a little cottage in Royal Deeside, exploring Aberdeenshire. As is my wont – and indeed much of the reasoning behind the choice of location – a good part of our holiday will be devoted to visiting ancient sites, and, after arriving late Saturday and having a lazy Sunday, today has been our first major excursion into the ancient landscape around us.

We devoted today to visiting the major recumbent stone circles in the area – so called because of the style of circle unique to North . . . → Read More: Megalithic Megamix in Aberdeenshire